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PhD Student

Austin Cristobal Flick

Research Interests

Robust, Manufacturable, Large Area Perovskite Solar Modules

Commercialization of solar energy technologies requires optimization across four key pillars: performance, scalability, stability, and cost. These pillars are inherently linked, and research into the commercial viability of perovskite solar modules requires extensive optimization within each pillar.  Our holistic approach includes the development of a uniquely scalable and low-cost deposition and curing method alongside a thorough evaluation of stability and testing standards towards accurately assessing the commercial viability of perovskite solar modules.

Scalable, Rapid Spray-Plasma Processed (RSPP) Perovskite Solar Modules

In order to realize high performing large-area perovskite modules, scalable fabrication methods must be employed to be compatible with our large-area laser-scribed design. An innovative plasma curing method, RSPP, allows for high throughput, efficient, and mechanically robust perovskite films with deposition rates of > 20 cm/s in open air, the highest throughput for any perovskite deposition method. We leverage the multi-modal curing capabilities of RSPP—top-down and bottom-up heating, UV photonic curing, and exposure to reactive ions—to produce uniquely mechanically robust perovskite thin films, demonstrating a 5x greater resistance to fracture compared to conventional processing. This process paves the way for module fabrication on larger substrates, allowing for greater development of new laser-scribed architectures and larger modules.

Austin Flick

Fig. 1: Photograph of a perovskite film deposited by RSPP on 930 cm2 glass in under 4 min.

Laser-Scribed Perovskite Modules with Monolithically Integrated Series Interconnections

One of the principle concerns in the development of large-area perovskite devices is an increase in resistive losses throughout the device, most notably due to the non-negligible sheet resistance of the transparent front electrode combined with an increase in current output over a larger area. Therefore, achieving large-area devices requires developing a new architecture based on monolithically series interconnected subcells with low-cost laser-scribed interconnections.

Laser Scribe Interconnection Optimization

Using a single source pulsed laser at speeds > 3 m/s, submillimeter width “dead areas” are achieved on large-area substrates with successful series interconnections involving a P1, P2, and P3 laser scribe. The P1 and P3 scribes serve to isolate the front and rear electrodes, respectively, while the P2 is responsible for providing the series interconnection between adjacent cells. All three scribe processes utilize a single wavelength laser source with a unique scribing method that outperforms conventional direct ablation mechanisms. We’ve demonstrated single-source laser-scribed large area perovskite modules on films ranging from 0.5 cm2 to > 100cm2 while maintaining module performance with an optimized cell geometry and module design. This scribing method allows for rapid, repeatable, and narrow laser scribes requiring only a single laser source, enabling reduced costs and high throughput module production.

Fig. 2: Laser-scribed module schematic highlighting the series interconnection of adjacent cells.

Large-Area Encapsulated RSPP Perovskite Solar Modules

Towards producing large-area perovskite modules for performance and stability assessment, laser scribed RSPP perovskite modules are assembled in a 3-glass encapsulation structure with an inert environment packaging laminator. Optimization of lamination conditions, encapsulant and edge-seal composition, internal serial/parallel connections, and external connections yield resulting RSPP perovskite packages with maintained performance compared to the individual constituent modules. The inert environment packaging enables a suite of accelerated and outdoor testing conditions to evaluate intrinsic stability of the internal perovskite modules while mitigating concern over package integrity.

Fig. 3: Fully encapsulated 225cm2 laser scribed RSPP perovskite solar module.


Testing Standards for Perovskite Solar Modules

Stability characterization of perovskite solar technologies have thus far included a farrago of tests aimed at demonstrating reasonable yet often unreproducible results. We provide an unbiased assessment of the stability of the RSPP perovskite modules by implementing standardized testing protocols, following scripted testing guidelines for stability against heat, moisture, light, and field operation according to IEC 61215 tests 10.2, 10.8, 10.10, 10.11, and 10.13. Our lab is outfitted with a variety of accelerated aging chambers, enabling parallel testing of up to nine unique conditions such as damp heat, UV preconditioning, thermal cycling, and maximum power point tracking. These in-house capabilities are complimented by sophisticated shared facilities that enable further optoelectronic and chemical characterization for thorough post-mortem module analysis.

Fig. 4: Environmental and accelerated aging suite. a,b) 5 – 8 cu. ft. environmental weathering chambers for temperature and humidity exposure, thermal cycling, and UV preconditioning. c,d) solar testing suite with variable sun illumination, temperature control, maximum power point tracking, and laser beam induced current. e) Outdoor field aging.

Open-Air Plasmas for Manufacturing Thin-Film Metal Oxides

Low-temperature open-air plasmas provide a unique environment of heat, reactive species (ions, radicals), and UV light for curing a range of semiconductor materials for energy storage and harvesting, protective barriers and nanocomposites. Tunable plasma architectures (i.e. dielectric barrier discharge, blown-arc discharge) with a range of primary and secondary feed gases enable a broad variety of curing environments to promote increased surface oxidation, increased oxygen vacancy concentration, enhanced cross-linking events, reduced residual carbon contamination, and increased processing throughputs. The vast parameter space for open-air plasma processing is complemented by in-situ characterization equipment including optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and mass spectroscopy to uncover the nuances between plasma operating regimes.

Fig. 5: a) Schematic for blown-arc discharge plasma with primary feed gas, supplementary gas, and precursor injection. b) In-situ OES of the afterglow of the blown-arc discharge with variable UV and reactive species “dose” as a function of distance from the plasma barrel.


  • A.C. Flick, N. Rolston, & R.H. Dauskardt, "Indirect Liftoff Mechanism for High-Throughput, Single-Source Laser Scribing for Perovskite Solar Modules", Adv. Energy Materials, 2024. 
  • R. Keesey, A. Tiihonen, A.E. Siemenn, T.W. Colburn, S. Sun, N.T.P Hartono, J. Serdy, M. Zeile, K. He, C.A. Gurtner, A.C. Flick, C. Batali, A. Encinas, R.R. Naik, Z. Liu, F. Oviedo, I.M. Peters, J. Thapa, S.I.P. Tian, R.H. Dauskardt, A.J. Norquist & T. Buonassisi, “An Open-Source Environmental Chamber for Materials-Stability Testing Using an Optical Proxy”, ChemRxiv, 2022, DOI: 10.26434/chemrxiv-2022-wp18w
  • L. Zhe, N. Rolston, A.C. Flick, T.W. Colburn, Z. Ren, R.H. Dauskardt & T. Buonassisi, “Machine Learning with Knowledge Constraints for Process Optimization of Open-Air Perovskite Solar Cell Manufacturing”, Joule, 2022, DOI: 10.1016/j.joule.2022.03.003
  • J. Zhang, Y. Ding, G. Jiang, A.C. Flick, Z. Pan, W.J. Scheideler, O. Zhao, J.P. Chen, L. Yang, N. Rolston & R.H. Dauskardt, “Low-temperature sprayed SnOx nanocomposite films with enhanced hole blocking for efficient large area perovskite solar cells”, Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 2021, DOI: 10.1039/d1ta05969f
  • N. Rolston, A. Sleugh, J.P. Chen, O. Zhao, T.W. Colburn, A.C. Flick & R.H. Dauskardt, “Perspectives of Open-Air Processing to Enable Perovskite Solar Cell Manufacturing”, Frontiers in Energy Research, 2021, DOI: 10.3389/fenrg.2021.684082
  • N. Rolston, W.J. Scheideler, A. Flick, J.P. Chen, H. Elmaraghi, O. Zhao, M. Woodhouse, & R.H. Dauskardt, “Rapid Open-Air Fabrication of Manufacturable Perovskite Solar Modules”, Joule, 2020, DOI: 10.1016/j.joule.2020.11.001

Conference Proceedings and Presentations

  • A.C. Flick, N. Rolston, M. Fievez & R.H. Dauskardt, “Rapid Spray Plasma Processing for High-Throughput, Multi-Modal Curing of Perovskite Solar Modules”, Materials Research Society Spring Meeting, Honolulu, HI, May 13, 2022. Oral Presentation
  • A.C. Flick & R.H. Dauskardt, “TCO-Based Scribing Mechanism for High-Throughput Perovskite Module Manufacturing”, Materials Research Society Fall Meeting, Boston, MA, December 2, 2021. Oral Presentation
  • A.C. Flick & R.H. Dauskardt, “Scalable Processes for Manufacturable Perovskite Solar Modules”, Stanford Energy Student Lectures 2021, August 23, 2021. Oral Presentation
  • N. Rolston, W.J. Scheideler, A.C. Flick, J.P. Chen, H. Elmaraghi, A. Sleugh, O. Zhao, M. Woodhouse & R.H. Dauskardt, “Rapid Open-Air Processing of Low-Cost Perovskite Solar Modules”, IEEE 48th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, June, 2021. Oral Presentation
  • A.C. Flick & R.H. Dauskardt, “High Throughput, Single-Source Scribing Mechanism for Optimal Interconnections in Thin Film Photovoltaic Modules”, Materials Research Society Spring Meeting, virtual, 2021. Oral Presentation
  • N. Rolston, L. Zhe, A.C. Flick, T.W. Colburn, J. P. Chen, T. Buonassisi & R.H. Dauskardt, “Machine Laerning Tools to Accelerate Perovskite PV Manufacturing”, Materials Research Society Spring Meeting, virtual, 2021. Oral Presentation
  • A.C. Flick, N. Rolston, W.J. Scheideler & R.H. Dauskardt, “Rapid, Scalable, Monolithically Integrated Laser Scribes for Perovskite Solar Modules”, Materials Research Society Fall Meeting, virtual, 2020. Oral Presentation
  • N. Rolston, W.J. Scheideler, A.C. Flick, J.P. Chen, O. Zhao, J. Zhang & R.H. Dauskardt, “Rapid open-air fabrication of scalable and stable perovskite solar modules”, Materials Science and Engineering Centennial Celebration, Stanford, CA, October 30, 2019. Poster Presentation


Ph.D. Stanford University, Materials Science and Engineering, in progress
M.S. Stanford University, Materials Science and Engineering, 2019.
B.S. with Distinction, Stanford University, Materials Science and Engineering, 2019.



Durand Building, Rm. 111